Monday, January 17, 2011

Short Notes

Science 10 Provincial Notes
UNIT 1 Sustaining Earth’s Ecosystem

Chapter 1: Biomes and Ecosystems
Section 1.1- Biomes
Section 1.2- Ecosystems

Chapter 2: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles
Section 2.1- Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Section 2.2- Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems
Section 2.3- Effects of Bioaccumulation on Ecosystems.

Chapter 3: Ecosystems Changing
Section 3.1- How changes Occur Naturally
Section 3.2- How Humans Influence Ecosystems
Section 3.3- Introduced Species

UNIT 2 Chemical Reactions and Radioactivity

Chapter 4: Atomic Theory explains the formation of compounds
Section 4.1- Atomic Theory and Bonding
Section 4.2- Names and Formulas
Section 4.3- Chemical Equations

Chapter 5: Compounds are classified in different ways
Section 5.1- Acids and Bases
Section 5.2- Salts
Section 5.3- Organic Compounds

Chapter 6: Chemicals Reactions
Chapter 6.1- Types of Chemical Reactions
Section 6.2- Factors Affecting Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: The Atomic Theory
Section 7.1- Atomic Theory, Isotopes and Radioactive Decay
Section 7.2- Half-Life
Section 7.3- Nuclear Reactions

UNIT 3 Motion

Chapter 8: Average Velocity
Section 8.1- The Language of Motion
Section 8.2- Average Velocity

Chapter 9: Acceleration
Section 9.1- Describing Acceleration
Section 9.2- Calculating Acceleration

UNIT 4 Energy Transfer in Natural Systems

Chapter 10: The Kinetic Molecular Theory
Section 10.1- Temperature, Thermal Energy and Heat
Section 10.2- Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

Chapter 11: Climate Change
Section 11.1- Natural Causes of Climate Change
Section 11.2- Human Activity and Climate Change

Chapter 12: Thermal Energy transfer Drives Plate Tectonics
Section 12.1- Evidence for Continental Drift
Section 12.2- Features of Plate Tectonics

Chapter 1: Biomes and Ecosystems
Section 1.1- Biomes
Abiotic and Biotic
Biotic- living components:
- Organisms
- Plants, animals, fungi and bacteria
- Interact with each other and with the physical and chemical environment in which they live in
Abiotic- non- living components:
- Sunlight, soli, moisture and temperature
Includes large regions that have similar biotic components:
- Similar temperature and amount of rainfall
- There are 8 terrestrial (land based) biomes
1. Boreal Forest
2. Desert
3. Grassland
4. Permanent Ice
5. Temperate Deciduous Forest
6. Temperate Rainforest
7. Tropical Rainforest
8. Tundra

Factors That Influence Biomes
Temperature and Precipitation:
- Precipitation- rain, snow, mist and fog
- Most important abiotic factors that influence the characteristics of biomes
- Animals and plants can only survive in specific temperatures and the amount of precipitation
- Graph- y axis: annual precipitation and x axis: find the intersection with the average annual temperature
- Abiotic factor that affects the temperature and precipitation
- Distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator
- Tropical zone: is close to equator, it receives more direct sunlight and has warm temps.
- Sun rays less intense farther away from the equator, the temp. In these zones are lower that they are at the equator.
- At the equator- the direct sunlight heats moist air, which rises, cools in the upper atmosphere and falls on earth as rain
- Land or oceans on the equator receive greatest amount of precipitation

- The height of a land mass above sea level
- Affects temperature because atmosphere is thinner at a higher elevation which means it retains less heart
- Windward side of a mountain: clouds filled with moisture rise and cool then release rain or snow
- Leeward side- (sheltered by the wind) the air warms again, which allows it to absorb water creating a dry land area

Ocean Currents:
- Also and abiotic factor that affects temp and precipitation
- Makes biome warmer and wetter

Climate and Climotographs:
- Climate: average pattern of weather conditions that occur in a region
- Climatograph: a graph of climate data usually obtained over 30 years from local weather observations
- Month of the years is shown is shown on the horizontal axis
- The average temp is shown on the right vertical axis
- The average propitiations is shown on the left vertical axis

Adaptations and Biomes
- Characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce. There are 3 types:
a) Structural adaptation- physical feature of an organisms having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism
Example: pine trees are cone-shaped and therefore get rid of snow.
Example: Arctic fox has thick, white coat in the winter and a brownish-grey one in the simmer for camouflage.
b) Physiological Adaptation- physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of the organism that enables survival.
Example: wolves can contain a constant body temperature no matter the weather conditions.
c) Behavioral Adaptations- what an organism does to survive in the unique conditions of its environment. (Feeds, mates, cares for young, migrate, hibernate or escape from predators.)
Example: the owl lines his nest with grass, which keeps it cool during the day and warm at night.

The Biomes:
1. Tundra Located in the upper northern hemisphere
Very cold and dry
Permanently frozen soil (permafrost)
Plants are short and there are few trees
Animals have compact bodies and shorter legs and ears which reduce heat loss
2. Boreal Forest Found in the far north
Below freezing half the year
Mainly coniferous (cone-bearing) trees
3. Temperate Deciduous Forest Located in temperate regions- mostly eastern North American, eastern Asia and Europe
Trees lose their leaves in winter (tall tress)
Large seasonal changes with four distinct seasons
4. Temperate Rainforest Found along coastlines where oceans winds drops large amounts of moisture
Coast of Chile, BC, New Zealand, part of Australia
Cool and very wet (fog which provides moisture and rainfall)
Allows trees (mainly evergreens) to grow very tall
5. Grassland Occurs in temperate and tropical regions
Canada, North America, Russia, Africa, South America, northern Australia
Covered with grasses that have deep roots, which are well adapted to droughts
Limited rainfall and land is mainly flat
Large grazing animals
6. Tropical Rainforest Found in wide band around the equator
Northern South America, Central America, central Africa and southeast Asia
Wet and warm all year around
Allows the growth of a dense canopy of tall tress
Hass the greatest diversity of animals but few large a mammals
7. Desert Occur in temperate and tropical regions
Days are hot and nights are cold
Rainfall is minimal and plans and animals are adapter to reduce water loss
Reptiles are common and have thick skin and scales
8. Permanent Ice Includes the polar land masses and large polar ice caps
Arctic, Greenland and Antarctica
The few animals that live there are well insulated against the extreme cold

Section 1.2- Ecosystems
Parts of an Ecosystem
- Has abiotic factors- oxygen, water, nutrients, light and soil
- Biotic factors- plants and animals, microorganisms.
- Within an ecosystem is a habitat which is a place in which an organism lives

Abiotic Interactions in Ecosystems
- Organisms have special roles-or niches in their ecosystem
- The way it contributes to and fits into its environment
- Biotic interactions are structured form smallest to largest in and ecological hierarchy
a) A species: is a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another
b) Population- all the members of a species within an ecosystem
c) Community- populations of a different species that interact in a specific ecosystem

Biotic Interactions in Ecosystems
- The interaction of two different organisms that live in close association
- Communalism, mutualism, parasitism, competition, predation, and mimicry
Interaction Result Example
Commensalism One Organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. Barnacles attach to whales and are transported to new locations in the ocean.
Mutualism Both organisms benefit and sometimes neither species can survive without the other. In lichen, the alga produces sugars and oxygen for the fungus, which provides carbon dioxide and water for the alga.
Parasitism One species benefits and another is harmed. Hookworms attach to the gut wall and obtain nourishments from their host’s blood.
Competition Organisms require the same resource (i.e. food) in the same place at the same time. Spotted knapweed release chemicals into the soil, which prevents the growth of other plants.
Predation One organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey). Cougars have sharp, pointed teeth to catch prey.
Mimicry A prey animal mimics another species that is dangerous or tastes bad to avoid being eaten. Viceroy butterflies look like bitter-tasting monarch butterflies and are avoided by predators.

Chapter 2: Energy Flow and Nutrient Cycles
Section 2.1- Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Energy Flow:
- Producers: plants that produce food in the form of carbohydrates during photosynthesis
- Consumer: a insects that eats the plant
Dead organisms:
- Decomposition: the breakdown of organic wastes and dead organism
- Biodegradation: when living organisms carry out decomposition
a) Detrivores, such as small insects, earthworms, bacteria and fungi, obtain energy and nutrients by eating dead plants and animals, as well as animal waste
b) Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, change wastes and dead organisms into nutrients that can be used by plants and animals
Food Chains and Webs
Food Chains
- Show the flow of energy from plant to animal and from animal to animal
- Each step in a food chain is called a trophic level
- Detrivores: consumers that obtain energy at every trophic level and nutrients by eating small dead stuff
- Herbivores: primary consumers that eat plants
- Carnivores: secondary consumers that eat primary consumer

Level Organism Energy Source Example
1st Primary producer Obtain energy from the sun Grass, algae
2nd Primary consumer Obtain energy from primary producers Grasshoppers, krill
3rd Secondary consumer Obtain energy from primary consumer Frogs, crabs
4th Tertiary consumer Obtain energy from secondary consumers Hawks, sea otters

Food webs:
- Interconnected food chains
- Animals are in several food chains because they eat or get eaten by several organisms
 Food Pyramid:
- Shows the loss of energy from one trophic level to another
- Not all energy in incorporated into the consumers tissues
- Between 80 and 90% of energy is used for chemical reactions and is lost as heat
- Ecosystems can support fewer organisms at higher trophic levels, as less energy reaches these levels

Section 2.2- Nutrient Cycles in Ecosystems
The Carbon Cycle
Cycled through living and decaying organisms, the atmosphere, bodies of water and soil and rock

- It is a chemical reaction that converts solar energy into chemical energy by an important process in which carbon and oxygen cycle through the ecosystem
- Energy (sunlight) + 6CO2 + 6H2 * C6H1206 + 602

Cellular Respiration:
- Plants and animals breath out carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere by converting carbohydrates and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water
- C6H1206 (carbohydrates) + 602 * 6CO2 +6HO2 + 6H2O + energy

- Breaks down dead organic matter
- Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi that convert organic molecules back into carbon dioxide, which then is released into the atmosphere

Ocean Process and Human Activity:
- Ocean process dissolves carbon dioxide that is stored in oceans
- Human activities are burning foil and clearing land which both release carbon quickly

The Nitrogen Cycle
Component of DNA and proteins, which are essential for the life, processes that take place inside the cell.
Most nitrogen is stored in the atmosphere (N2 nitrogen gas)

Nitrogen Fixation:
- The process in which nitrogen gas is converted into compounds that conation nitrate or ammonium which are useful for plants
- Nitrogen fixation occurs in: atmosphere, soil and in water bodies

Nitrification an Uptake:
- In Nitrification ammonium (NH4+) is converted into nitrate (NO3-)
- Takes place in two stages
- First stage: certain species of nitrifying bacteria convert ammonium into nitrate.
- Second stage: different species of nitrifying bacteria convert nitrite into nitrate
- The uptake is where useable forms of nitrogen are taken up by plant roots and included into plant proteins

- Where nitrogen is returned to the atmosphere
- In terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Denitrification involves certain bacteria know as denitrifying bacteria
- Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate back into nitrogen gas

Human activities:
- Fossil fuels and burning organic matter release nitrogen into the atmosphere, where it forms acid rain.
- Chemical fertilizers also contain nitrogen, which escapes into the atmosphere or leaches into lake and streams.
The Phosphorus Cycle
Necessary for life processes on plants and animals.
Carries energy to cells
Found in phosphate (PO4³-) rock and sediments on the ocean floor.
- Releases phosphorus into soil.
- The process of breaking down rock into smaller fragments.
- Chemical weathering reacts, which causes phosphate rocks to break, down and releases phosphate soil.
- Acid participation and the chemicals released by lichens can also cause chemical weathering.
- Physical Weathering is when wind, rain, and freezing release particles of rock and phosphate into the soil.

- Organisms take up phosphorus and when they die, decomposers return phosphorus to the soil.
- The excess phosphors settle on the floor of lakes and oceans, forming sedimentary rock.

Geologic Uplift:
- Phosphorus remains trapped for a long time until the rock layers are exposed through geologic uplift.
- Geologic uplift refers to the process of mountain building in which earths crust folds, and deeply buried rock rise and uncover.

Human Activity:
- Commercial fertilizers and phosphate-containing detergents enter waterways and contribute phosphate to the phosphorus cycle.
- Slash and burn forest reduces phosphate levels

Section 2.3- Effects of Bioaccumulation on Ecosystems
Human Activity:
- Creates many harmful pollutants
- Bioaccumulation refers to the gradual build-up of pollutants in living organisms
- Biomagnifications refers to the process in which pollutants not only accumulate but become more concentrated at each trophic level
- Keystone species are species that greatly affect ecosystems health, or the reproductive abilities of species are harmed
PCB Concentrates:
- In orcas food web
- When orcas consume food contaminated with PCBS they store some PCBs in their blubber
- When salmon (the food they eat) orcas use their bladder for energy
- These release PCDB into the system
- PCB can also affect a whole ecosystem
Half Life:
- The time it takes for the amount of a substance to decrease by half
Persistent Organic Pollutants
- Carbon-containing compounds that remain in water and soil for many years
- Chemical accumulation is measured in parts per million
Heavy Metals:
- Metallic elements with a high dentist that are toxic to organisms at low concentrations
- Lead, cadmium and mercury

Chapter 3: Ecosystems Changing
Section 3.1- How changes Occur Naturally
How Organisms Adapt to Change
Natural selection-
- Best adapted members of a species to survive to reproduce
- Pass this to their offspring
How Ecosystems Change Over Time
Ecological succession:
- Changes that take place over time in the types of organisms that live in an area
- Two types:
1. Primary Succession
- No soil exist before
- On bare rock
- Wind and rain carry spores of lichens to these areas
- Lichens obtain nutrients by secreting chemicals that break down rock
- The first organisms to survive and reproduce are called pioneer species
- After a very long time, it leads to climax (mature) community
2. Secondary Succession
- Small disturbances such as a fire, happen in an ecosystem
- Already had soil and was once the home of living organisms
- The process much faster then primary since micro-organisms, insects, seeds and nutrients still exist in soil

Section 3.2- How Humans Influence Ecosystems
- The ability of an ecosystem to sustain ecological processed
- Land use refers to the ways we use the land around us
- Resource use is the ways we obtain our resources like wood, soil, water and minerals
Traditional Ecological Knowledge:
- First nations’ through understanding of the plants, animals and natural occurrences in their environment
- Reflects knowledge about local climate and resources, biotic and abiotic characteristic, and animal and plant life cycles
Resource Exploitation Affect Ecosystem
Effect Example of Human Activity How ecosystems are affected
Habitat loss Humans take over natural space in the creation of cities Habitats are destroyed and no longer can support the species
Habitat fragmentation Agriculture etc. divide natural ecosystems into smaller, isolated fragments Plant pollination
Deforestation Forests are logged or cleared for human use and never replanted The # of plants and animals living in an ecosystem are reduced
Soil degradation Leave land bare so water and wind erosion remove top soil Reducing plant growth
Soil compaction Farm vehicles are grazing animals squeeze soil particles together Reduces the movement of air, water and soil organisms in soil
Contamination By-products of resource exploitation such as mining, introduce toxins Kills plants and animals
Overexploitation A resource is used or extracted until it is depleted Food webs are affected
Section 3.3- Introduced Species
Introduced Species
Native Species:
- Plants and animals that naturally inhabit an area
Introduced species (foreign):
- Plants and animals that have been introduced into an ecosystem by humans
- Beneficial or harmless
Invasive Species:
- Take over a habitat of native species
- Also invade their bodies, weakening their immune system
Example: Scotch broom was introduced to BC as a garden plane. It has up to 18 000 seeds per plant, can survive drought, and fixes nitrogen in the soil, causing conditions they many native species have trouble growing in. Together with other introduced species, is competition with the keystone species Carry Oak on Vancouver Island.
Effect Harm to Native Species
Competition Aggressive
They easily outcompete native species for food and habitat
Predation Introduced predators can have more impact on a prey population than native predators
Prey may not have adaptations to escape or fight them
Disease and parasites An invasion of parasites or disease-causing viruses and bacteria
Can weaken the immune response of native plants and animals
Habitat alternation Introduced invasive species can make a natural habitat unsuitable for native species
Changing its structure or composition

Chapter 4: Atomic Theory explains the formation of compounds
Section 4.1- Atomic Theory and Bonding
A compound:
- A pure substance that is composed of two or more atoms combined in a specific way
- The smallest particle of an element that retain the properties of an element
Atomic theory:
- Subatomic particle are the particles that make up an atom
Name Symbol Electric Charge Location in Atom Relative Mass
Proton p 1+ Nucleus 1836
Neutron n 0 Nucleus 1837
Electron e 1- Surrounding the nucleus 1

The Nucleus:
- The center of each atom
- The electric charge is always positive
- Nuclear charge (atomic number) is the electric charge on the nucleus and is found containing the amount of electrons
The Periodic Table:
- Each element is listed according to their atomic number
- Each row is called a period
- Each column (top and bottom) is called a group or family
- Metals on the left and in the middle of the table
- Elements in the same family have similar properties:
a) Alkali metals (1)- very reactive metals
b) The alkali earth metals (2)- somewhat reactive metals
c) The halogens (17)- very reactive non-metals
d) The noble gases (18)- very un-reactive heasous non-metals
The Periodic Table and Ion Formation
- When atoms gain or lose electrons the become electrically charged particles called ions
- Metals lose electrons to form positive electrons
- Non-metals gain electrons to for negative electrons

- Can from ions in more than one way

Bohr Diagrams:
- A diagram that shows how many electrons are in each shell surrounding the nucleus
- Electrons organized in shells
First shell- 2 electrons
Second shell- 8 electrons
- When this shell is full it is called a stable octet
- Valence shell is the outermost shell of electrons and those electrons are called valence electrons

Forming Compounds
Ionic bonding:
- Contains a positive ion (metal) and a negative ion
- One or more electrons are transfers from each atom of the metal to each atom of the non-metal
- The metal atoms lose electrons forming cations
- The non-metal atoms gain electrons forming anions
Covalent bonding:
- The atoms of a non-metal share electrons with other non-metals atoms
- An unpaired electron from each atom will pair together forming a covalent bond sometimes called bonding pairs
Lewis Diagrams
- Illustrates chemical bonding by showing only an atom’s valence electrons and it’s chemical symbol
- Dots represent electrons are placed around the elements symbols
- Electron dots are placed singly until the fifth electron is reached, then they are paired
- Positive ions- one electron dot is removed from the valence shell for each positive charge of the ion
- For negative ion- one electron dot is added to each valence shell for each negative charge of an ion

Section 4.2- Names and Formulas
Naming and Writing Ionic Compounds
- The first part of the name is the positive ion (a metal
- The second part is the negative ion (non-meals) which always ends with “-ide”
Example: lead sulphide
Writing formulas:
1. Indentify the chemical symbol for each ion and its charge
2. Determine the total charges needed to balance the positive and negative charges of each ion
3. Note the ratio of positive to negative ions
4. Use these subtracts to write the chemical formula
Naming and Writing Ionic Compounds
Writing Formulas:
1. Indentify each ion and its charge
2. Determine the total charges needed to balance positive with negative
3. Note the ratio of positive ions to negative ions
4. Use subscripts to write the formula
Multivalent Metals
Can form two or more positive ions with different ionic charges
Has roman numerals
Metal Ion Charge Roman Numeral
1+ I
2+ II
3+ III
2+ IV
5+ V
6+ VI
7+ VII

Polyatomic Ions
- Composed of more than one type of atom joined by a covalent bonds
- Have special names assigned to them
- (Need to look at a table)
Binary Covalent Compound
Binary covalent compounds:
- Contains two nonmetals elements joined together by one or more covalent bonds
- Prefixes indicate the number of atoms of each element that appear in the formula
Writing names”
1. Name the left most element in the formula first
2. Name the second element making sure the element name end with the suffix ide
3. Add the prefix to each elements name to indicate the number of atoms of each element in the compound
**If the first element has only one atom, do not add a prefix
Prefix Number
Mono- 1
Di- 2
Tri- 3
Tetra- 4
Penta- 5
Hexa- 6
Hepta- 7
Octa- 8
Nona- 9
Deca- 10
- P4010 tertaphosphrous decaoxidene ne can
Section 4.3- Chemical Equations
Chemical change
Reactants and Products:
- Involves the conversion of pure substance called reactants into other pure substances called products with different properties from the reactants
- One or more chemical changes that occur at the same time are called chemical reaction
How it is represented:
- By suing a chemical equation
- May be written in word or chemical symbols
- The symbols for states of matter are solid (s), gas (g) and liquids (l)
Conservation of Mass
- Atoms are neither destroyed nor produced in a chemical reaction
- The total mass of the products is always equal to the total mass of the reactants
Writing and Balancing Equations
1. Write a word equation: provides the names of the reactants and products
Example: methane +oxygen  water + carbon dioxide
2. Write a Skelton equation (replaces the names of the reactant s and products in a word equation with formulas) THIS IS NOT BALANCED!
Example: CH4 + 02  H20 + CO2
3. Write a balanced equation: shows the identities of each pure substance involved in the reaction. Uses lowest number coefficients. What you start with you must end with!!!
Example: CH4 +2O2  2H20 + CO2

Chapter 5: Compounds are classified in different ways
Section 5.1: Acids and Base
Acids and Bases
pH Scale:
- A number scale for measuring how acidic or basic a solution is.
- Less than 7 acidic
- More than 7 basic
- pH of 7 neutral (neither acidic or basic)

pH values of common substances

- Chemical compounds that produce a solution with a pH of less than 7 when they dissolve in water.
- Taste sour, will burn you skin, they corrode metals, conduct electricity.
- Compounds that produce a solution of pH of more than 7 when dissolve in water.
- Taste bitter, feel slippery, many will burn your skin, no reaction to meals, conduct electricity.
pH Indicators
pH Indicators Used For:
- Chemicals that change color depending on the pH of the solution they are placed in.
- Blue litmus paper turns red in an acidic solution.
- Red litmus paper turns to blue in a basic solution.
- Phenolphthalein, bromothymol blue, indigo carmine, methyl orange and methyl red are other common ph indicators.

Naming Acids and Bases
- Chemical formulas are usually written with an H on the left side of the formula.
- If no state of matter is given, the name may be given beginning with hydrogen, as in hydrogen chloride.
- If acids is shown as being aqueous as in HCI(aq), a different name may be used that ends in “-ic acid” as in hydrochloric acid.
Names of Acids:
- Names that begin with hydrogen and end with the suffix “-ate” can be changed by dropping “hydrogen” from the name and changing the suffix to –ic
Example: H2CO3- hydrogen carbonate

- They are usually written with an OH on the right side of the formula.
- Common names of bases include sodium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.

Section 5.2: Salts
Acid Base Neutralization
Neutralization (acid base):
- acid and a base react to form a salt and water
Example: HCI + NaOH  NaCI + H2O

Metals Oxides and Non-Metal Oxides:
Metal Oxides:
- Contains a metal chemically combined with oxygen.
- The solution becomes basic
Example: Na2O(s) + H2O 2NaOH(aq) (a base Sodium hydroxide
Non-Metals Oxides
- Contains a non-metal chemically combined with oxygen.
- The solution become acidic
Example: CO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2CO3(aq) Carbonic acid

Acids, Metals and Carbonates
Acids and Metals:
- When metals react with acids to produce salt, they usually release hydrogen gas
- The most reactive metal are the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals.
- The bottom of the columns reacts most vigorously.
- React with acids to produce salts.
- Much of the carbon dioxide on the surface of the earth is trapped in rocks, such as limestone, dolomite, and calcite.
- Carbonates help to neutralize acids.

Section 5.3: Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
Organic and Inorganic Compounds:
- Organic compounds are any compounds that contain carbon (with a few expectations)
- Carbon in organic compounds forms four bonds.
- To recognize a compound as organic: Look for an indication of the presence of the presence of carbon in its name, chemical formula or diagram.
- Inorganic compounds include compounds that generally don’t contain carbon and also a few exceptions to the organic classification (i.e. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ionic carbonates).

A hydrocarbon:
- An organic compound that contains only the elements carbon and hydrogen (simples is methane)

- One of a kind organic compound that contains C. H, and O.
- Many types such as methanol, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol.
- A solvent is a liquid that can dissolve other substances.

Chapter 6: Chemicals Reactions
Section 6.1- Types of Chemical Reactions
Chemical Reactions
Six main types:
- Synthesis
- Decomposition
- Single replacement
- Double replacement
- Neutralization (acid, base)
- Combustion

Synthesis (combination) reactions:
- Two or more reactants (A and B) combine to produce a singe product (AB). A + B  AB

Decomposition reaction:
- A compound is broken down into smaller compounds or separate elements.
- The reverse of a synthesis reaction.
Example: compound  element + element
            AB  A + B

Single Replacement
Single Replacement reaction:
- A reactive element (a metal or non-metal) and a compound react to produce another element and another compound react to produce another element and another compound.
- One of the elements in the compound is replace by anther element.
- The element that is replaced could be a metal or a non-metal.
Example: element + compound  element + compound
     A + BC  B + AC where A is a metal OR
           A + BC  C + BA where A is a non-metal

Double Replacement
Double Replacement Reaction:
- Usually involves two ionic solutions that react to produce two their ionic compounds.
- One of the compounds forms a precipitate, which is an insoluble solid that forms a solution.
Example: ionic solution + ionic solution  ionic solution + ionic solution
        AB(aq) + CD(aq)  AD(aq) + CB(s)

Neutralization (acid-base)
Neutralization (acid-base) reaction:
- When an acid and a base are combined, they will neutralize each other.
- An acid and a base react to form a salt and water.
Example: acid + base  salt + water
    HX + MOH  MX + H20 (X= negative ion, M= positive ion)

Combustion reaction:
- The rapid reaction of a compound or element with an oxygen to form an oxide and produce heat.
Example: hydrocarbon + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water

Section 6.2- Factors Affecting Chemical Reactions
Rate of Reaction
Rate of reaction:
- How quickly or slowly reactants turn into products.
- A reaction that takes a long time has a low reaction rate.
- A reaction that occurs quickly has a high reaction rate.
- A rate describes how quickly or slowly a change occurs.
Factors affected rate of reaction:
- Temperature
- Concentration
- Surface Area
- Catalyst

Increasing + Higher Temperature:
- Causes the particles (atoms or molecules) of the reactants to move more quickly so that they collide with each other more frequently and with more energy.
- The higher the temperature the greater the rate of reaction.
Decreasing + Lower Temperature:
- If you decrease temperature the particles move more slowly, colliding less frequently and with less energy.
- The rate of reaction decreases.

Greater Concentration:
- if a greater concentration of reactant atoms and molecules is present, there is a greater chance that collisions will occur among them.
- More collisions mean a higher reaction rate.
- Increasing concentration of the reactants usually results in a higher reaction rate.
- When you blow on a campfire, you are increasing the concentration of oxygen near the flames,
Lower Concentration:
- There is less chance for collision between particles.
- Decreasing the concentration of the reactants results in a lower reaction rate.

Surface Area
For the same mass:
- Many small particles have a greater total SA than one large particle.
- The more surface contact between reactants, the higher the rate of reaction.
- The less surface contact, the lower the reaction rate.

A catalyst:
- Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used in the reaction itself.
- Reduce the amount of energy required to break and form bonds during chemical reaction.
- A reaction can proceed although less energy is added during the reaction.
- Catalysts that allow chemical reactions to occur ate relatively low temperatures within the body.
- Large organic molecules, usually proteins, which speed up reaction in living cells.
- Each enzyme in your body is specialized to perform its own function.

Chapter 7: The Atomic Theory
Section 7.1- Atomic Theory, Isotopes and Radioactive Decay
- The release of high-energy particles and rays of energy from a substance as a result of changes in the nuclei of its atoms.
- Radiation refers to high-energy rays and particles emitted by radioactive sources.
- Includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared rays, visible light and ultraviolent rays
- Light is one form of radiation that is visible to humans.

- Different atoms of a particular element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
- All isotopes of an element have the same atomic number (protons), however, since the number of neutrons differs, the mass number and atomic mass differ from one isotope to the next.
Mass number:
- An integer (whole #) that represents the sum of an atom’s protons and neutrons.
Mass number = atomic number + number of neutrons
Number of protons = mass number – atomic number
Representing Isotopes:
- Includes the chemical symbol, atomic number and the mass number.
- The mass number is written as a subscript (above) on the left of the symbol.
- The atomic number is written as a subscript (below) on the left.

Radioactive Decay
Radioactive Decay:
- The process in which unstable nuclei lose energy by emitting radiation.
- By emitting radiation, atoms of one kind of element can change into atoms of another element.
- Radioisotopes are natural or human-made isotopes that decay into other isotopes, releasing radiation.
- Three types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma.
Property Alpha Radiation Beta Radiation Gamma Radiation
Symbol 42He or 42a 0-1b or 0-1e 00y
Composition Alpha particles Beta particles High-energy Radiation
Description Helium nuclei Electrons High energy rays
Charge 2+ 1- 0
Relative Penetrating Blocked by paper Blocked by metal foil Partly/completely blocked
Power Or concrete By lead
Alpha Radiation:
Alpha particles:
- Positively charged atomic particles that are much more massive that either beat and gamma radiation.
- Same combination of particles as the nucleus of a helium atom.
- Alpha particle has a mass number of 4 and an atomic number of 2, two protons and two neutrons.
- Has an electric charge of 2+.
- Relatively slow moving compared with other types of radiation.
- Not very penetrating- a single sheet of paper stops alp ha particles.
Alpha decay:
- The emission of an alpha particle from a nucleus.

Beta Radiation:
Beta particle:
- An electron that has a mass number of 0.
- Has an electric charge of 1-.
- Beat particles are lightweight and fast moving that have a greater penetrating power than alpha particles.
- A thin sheet of aluminum foil can block beta particles.
Beat Decay:
- A neutron changes into a proton and an electron.
- Proton remains in the nucleus while the electron shoots out from the nucleus with a lot of energy.
- The atomic number increases by one- it has become an atom of the next higher element.
- The mass number does not change.
 Gamma Radiation
Gamma Radiation:
- Consists of rays of high-energy, short-wavelength radiation.
- Have almost no mass and no charge. The release of gamma radiation does not change the atomic number or the mass number of a nucleus.
- Highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation.
Gamma Decay:
- Results from a redistribution of energy within the nucleus.
- A gamma ray is given off as the isotope changes from high-energy to a lower energy state.

Section 7.2- Half-Life
Carbon Dating
Radiocarbon dating:
- The process of determining the age of an abject by measuring the amount of carbon-14 remaining in that object.
- Carbon isotopes include carbon-23 and carbon-14.
- When an organism is alive the ratio of carbom-14 atoms to carbon-12 atoms in the organism remains nearly constant.
The Rate of Radioactive Decay:
- Half life- is a constant for any radioactive isotope and is equal to the time required for a half the nuclei in a sample to decay.
Using a Decay Curve:
- A decay curve is a curved line on a graph that shows the rate at which radioisotopes decay.

Common Isotope Pairs
Parent and Daughter Isotope
- The isotope that undergoes radioactive decay is called the parent isotope.
- The stable products of radioactive decay are called the daughter isotope.
- The production of a daughter isotope can be a direct reaction or the result of a series of decays.
Parent Daughter Half Life of Parent Effective Dating Range
Carbon-14 Nitrogen-14 5730 Up to 50 000
Uranium-235 Lead-207 710 million > 10 million
Potassium-40 Argon-40 1.3 billion 10 000 to 3 billion
Uranium-238 Lead-206 4.5 billion > 10 million
Theorium-235 Lead-208 14 billion > 10 million
Rubidium-87 Strontium-87 47 billion > 10 million

The Potassium-40 Clock
How it Works:
- It uses radioisotopes, specifically potassium-40 and argon-40, to determine Earths age.
- When rock is produced from lava, all the gases (including potassium-40) in the molten rock are driven out, this process sets the potassium radioisotope clock to zero.

Section 7.3- Nuclear Reactions
Nuclear Fission
Nuclear Fission:
- The splitting of a big nucleus into two smaller nuclei, subatomic particles and energy.
- Heavy nuclei are unstable due to repulsive forces between the many protons.
- To increase stability, atoms with heavy nuclei may split into atoms with lighter nuclei.
- Fission is accompanied by a very large release of energy.
- 4He2 +14N7  17O8 + 1H1
Nuclear Fission of Uranium-235:
- When a nucleus of uranium-235 is stuck by or bombarded with a neutron, the nucleus absorbs the neutron.
- Result, the mass number of the nucleus increases by one.
- Because the number of protons had not changed, this is still an atom of uranium (just different isotope.)
- When a uranium nucleus undergoes fission, they release neutrons, which trigger more fission reactions.

Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear Fusion:
- The processes in which two low mass nuclei join together to make a more massive nucleus.
- It occurs at the core of the Sun and other stars, where there is a lot of pressure and high enough temperature to force isotopes of hydrogen to collide with great force.
- 2H1 + 3H1  4H2 + 1n0 + energy
- We don not currently have the technology to extract energy from fusion reactions.

 Comparing Nuclear Fission and Fusion:
Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion
Beginning Heavy unstable nuclei split apart in two smaller nuclei. Two lightweight nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus.
Releases Unstable nuclei release a huge amount of energy when they split. Lightweight nuclei release a huge amount of energy when they join.
Energy Heavy nuclei- don’t release energy Lightweight nuclei- will not release energy
Products Produce daughter products that are radioactive. No not produce products that are radioactive.
Technologies Many countries generate some electrical power through fission reactions. No commercial fusion reactors are in use or under construction.
Research Try to produce environmentally friendly nuclear power generation Try to produce a fusion nuclear reactor.
Used Used in modern nuclear weapons Used in modern nuclear weapons to generate most of the energy released in the blast.

Nuclear Equation:
A nuclear Equation:
- A set of symbols that indicates changes in the nuclei of atoms during a nuclear reaction.
1. The sum of the mass numbers on each side of the equation stays the same.
2. The sum of the charges (represented by atomic number) on each side of the equation stays the same.

1 comment:

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